Thermodynamics, Quantum Mechanics, and Information in Complex Dynamical Systems: A Plea for Ontological Pluralism
Sánchez Cañizares, Javier. Thermodynamics, Quantum Mechanics, and Information in Complex Dynamical Systems: A Plea for Ontological Pluralism. 2017
Complex dynamical systems (CDS) are providing a new way of understanding nature. Complexity needs the interplay of different levels in reality and a redeﬁnition of the epistemic approaches in the transition from lower to upper levels. Traditionally, the concept of emergence has tried to bring together the philosophical explanations for the differentiation and crossover between levels. However, it is highly controversial whether emergence is merely epistemic or truly ontic. In this article, I present the philosophical challenges posed by the emergence of CDS regarding conventional epistemic reductionism. I make a strong case for ontic emergence and, therefore, an ontologically plural universe focusing on three conundrums of current science: the Second Law of Thermodynamics, the measurement problem in Quantum Mechanics, and the symbol grounding problem. l conclude that all of them are interwoven, point towards rejection of naturalistic monism, and suggest the presence of a transcendent logos in nature.